Communications Security Establishment Government of Canada 2019 Reference: https://cyber.gc.ca/en/guidance/2019-update-cyber-threats-canadas-democratic-process This document provides an update to the 2017 report released by CSE. Its purpose is to let Canadians know about the cyber threats to our democratic process in 2019. This report considers cyber threat activity that affects the democratic process. Cyber threat activity involves the use of cyber tools (e.g. malware and spearphishing) to compromise the security of an information system by altering the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of a system or the information it contains. While there is a significant amount of false and misleading information online, foreign cyber interference targeting voters occurs when foreign threat actors use cyber tools to covertly manipulate online information in order to influence voters’ opinions and behaviours.